The shots are determined by the amount of subject that’s is included within the frame of the screen, and the subject is generally the human figure. the shot is not necessarily defined by the distance between the camera and the object photographed.
There are basically 6 categories of shots: the extreme long shot, the long shot, the full shot, the medium shot, the close-up shot, and the extreme close-up shot. The deep-focus shot is usually a variation of the long shot.
The medium shot is useful for shooting exposition scenes, for carrying movement, and for dialogue, and contains a few figures from the knees or waist up. However, the close-up shot is useful for shooting a very small object. Personally, I don’t really like them. They’re not exciting.
A Deep Focus is a technique of cinematography and staging with great depth of field. A deep-focus shot includes foreground, middle-ground, and extreme-background objects, all in focus. For example, In Marry Shelly’s Frankenstein, The shot is found and makes the laboratory moody and scary. Also, the shot requires a wide angle lens to photograph. By using the layering technique, the director can guide viewer’s eye from one to another.
An establishing shot is one version of extreme long shots. Extreme long shots serve as spatial frames of reference for the closer shots and for the closers shots. It is often used in epic films, which is a style of filmmaking with large-scale, sweeping scope, and spectacle.
Louis Giannetti (2013). Understanding Movie 13 edition.